Backscratching Revisited

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reading time 4 mins

I originally documented this technique in a previous article, I’ll Scratch Your Back, And Mine Too, but have updated the techniques and explanation here to reflect accessibility needs and to better convey the message.

In I’ll Scratch Your Back, And Mine Too, I wrote about a technique I came up with for styling default elements. To recap, this comes with a couple of advantages: managing styles for default elements is a lot easier for development and makes writing content for non-technical users as simple as possible—coupled with a nice WYSIWYG editor or knowledge of Markdown.

I’ve been revising the CSS architecture of my website recently trying to learn and expose myself to various techniques to see what works the best and feels the best for me. Alongside that, I’ve been lightly salting my HTML with little nuggets of accessibility in the form of ARIA and Microdata.

In doing this research, I learned a lot about the title attribute on anchors and how to present content properly for impaired users. Specifically, I learned about a technique that has relatively broad use for hiding anchor text that isn’t important to the visual journey but would be for someone with a visual impairment—that is to use a span to designate visually-hidden text inside an anchor.

<a href="/article/interesting-article">
    <span>Continue reading </span>Interesting Article by Emily
a span {
    width:  1px;
    height: 1px;
    position: absolute;
    overflow: hidden;
    clip: rect(1px, 1px, 1px, 1px);

The CSS technique above for hiding the span, itself, is a piece of code that seems more verbose than necessary. display: none; would work just as well to hide the element, but display: none; does something we don’t want: it removes the element from the flow of the page, meaning it won’t be read by screen readers, text-to-speech software, etc.

However, the code above does allow the element’s content to be read aloud, and is treated as any other text by text-to-speech software, despite it being completely visually hidden from the user.

In my actual SCSS, I abstract this snippet out and @extend it where I need it, like so:

@mixin visually-hidden() {
    width:  1px !important;
    height: 1px !important;
    padding: 0 !important;
    border: 0 !important;
    position: absolute !important;
    overflow: hidden !important;
    clip: rect(1px, 1px, 1px, 1px) !important;

a {
    span {
        @include visually-hidden;

One Step Further #one-step-further

We can tighten this up by slowing down a touch. What happens if we do want a span inside an anchor to be displayed visually?

<a href="/article/interesting-article">
    <span>Continue reading</span>Interesting Article by <span class="author--emily">Emily</span>

Looks like we’ve been a bit heavy-handed in hiding all spans nested inside anchors because we can’t differentiate here between our two spans. Let’s revise a bit.

a {
    span:not([class]) {
        @include visually-hidden;

Since I know that if I have the need for a span to change some visual style, I will want to be specific enough to give it a class. The above code alteration, as we first discussed in the previous article, taps into that fact and allows us to take advantage of our rule to always classify any spans I want to style for visual reasons, so using class-less spans will hide our textual accessibility cues.

A Prickly Pear #a-prickly-pear

But there’s a problem if we want to use Microdata. Let me demonstrate with a modified snippet of HTML from my site.

<aside class="author" itemscope itemtype="">
    <div class="author-name">
        by <a href="/about/">
               <span itemprop="author">Chris Burnell</span>

I won’t go into specifics on the attribute types here and what they mean as Microdata (read about that here), but to sum up: we can use different attributes (boolean or enumerated) to give the browser context about our data.

So instead of printing, for example, an author’s name, we’ll wrap it in a span and give it an itemprop attribute. When the value of the itemprop attribute is set to author within the scope of the Person schema, we’re essentially tagging the page with an author. There are numerous Schemas and Properties within each Schema to help you provide context to the content of your website.

But let’s focus on the span with the itemprop attribute. This isn’t text I want to be hidden, so this breaks the rule we established before (all spans which are children of an anchor are hidden). But we can solve this with a further modification to our SCSS snippet.

a {
    span:not([class]):not([itemprop]) {
        @include visually-hidden;

Now we can be sure to only target spans without a class or itemprop attribute!

The Takeaway #the-takeaway

You can extrapolate this idea to more than just spans for hiding text. The :not([class]) technique is extremely versatile and will help you in keeping your CSS lean and maintainable.

I have to reiterate that this technique needs to be taken with a grain of salt. Do not copy-pasta this code into your existing codebase without making careful considerations. Think of it like switching the box model in your CSS—you wouldn’t want to do that without first thinking about how it will affect your current code.

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